Worms are representatives of the lower worms that live in the human body. The disease associated with infecting a person with various types of worms is called helminthiasis. This disease is not uncommon and occurs in some sections of the population. Children are prone to pinworm infestation, hunters - trichinella, fishermen and lovers of Japanese cuisine (raw fish in the form of sushi) suffer from bifurcation. Many diseases, paradoxically, can occur in the human body due to helminth infection. To date, the theory of the relationship between cancer and parasitic infections is one of the most relevant. In the presence of helminthiasis, the symptoms do not always appear and if, however, patients with this disease develop unpleasant and unpleasant sensations, they are perceived as signs of other diseases. The patient is hospitalized for years for pancreatitis, gastritis or colitis, without suspecting that the cause of his disease is helminthiasis.
How the infection occurs
Worms bring a lot of problems to a person
Worm infestation occurs as follows:
- Through unwashed hands
- In contact with the ground
- after insect bites
- Because of dirty hands
- When eating raw meat and fish
- After eating unwashed fruits and vegetables
- After contact with an animal
- After contact with infected people
Mature pest eggs can be found in soil, water, food (raw and poorly processed meat or fish). Rare cases of the disease occur due to insect bites. The mechanism of infection with helminthiasis is oral. A person swallows parasite eggs with food, water. Contact-household contamination methods are also displayed. They occur when, after contact with soil or sand, hands have not been washed well.
Vegetables and berries that grow in the ground and are not washed enough are also a source of worm infestation. Children playing with the yard and pets are at risk of being infected by worms. Pets that roam the streets freely can lay helminth eggs in the house. Flies and other insects, after contact with the feces of animals sitting on food, can easily carry helminth eggs. Surprisingly, human-to-human transmission is also possible. This is how it happens: the female worm can crawl out of the intestines and lay eggs right on the underwear, causing intense itching. A person who has combed an itchy spot can come in contact with other toilet and household items. These items fall into the hands of other family members and then become infected.
Water contamination is also possible. Many parasitic eggs easily fall into open water bodies and wells. Drinking raw well water is extremely dangerous.
Types of helminths
Helminths differ in the way they enter the human body:
Biohelminths are transmitted to humans through contact with animals. The earthworm can be infected through the soil. Contagious result from contact with an infected person. The disease manifests itself differently depending on the method of infection, the number of worms, the degree of their adaptation to any human organ.
Stages of helminthiasis
The most destructive effect on the body is not produced by adults, but by their larvae. Adults have already chosen a comfortable place for themselves in the human body and the larva travels through the organs and leaves behind their damage. The most common habitat for parasites is the gastrointestinal tract. Different types of pests prefer different habitats. Thus the roundworms are located in the small intestine and the pin worms settle in the large intestine and in the lower parts of the small intestine. According to the habitat of the parasites, the helminths are:
The translucent ones are located in the lumens of the genitals and the tissue - inside the tissues. Depending on the growth, the parasites can change their environment, passing from the translucent form to the tissue. Helminthiasis develops in two stages:
The acute stage lasts from a week to a month and the chronic stage continues until it heals. The acute stage begins with the introduction of the egg and continues as the parasite matures and grows. The disease is manifested by allergic reactions to a foreign organism. During the chronic stage of the disease, various reactions of the organism occur. During this period, the parasite moves through the body in search of shelter. The disease is accompanied by disorders in the functioning of organs and systems in the human body. Once integrated into the human body's immune system, parasites consume the substances necessary for their growth and development. This leads to metabolic disorders, digestive disorders, difficulty in absorbing vitamins and minerals.
In addition to this damage, the parasites dump their waste into the human body, poisoning the body, leading to intestinal disorders, reduced immunity and the development of bacterial infections. Parasites contribute to the risk of developing cancer. This is due to the negative effects on the immune system and the stimulation of the cell division process. Often a patient is examined by many specialists who find a bunch of diseases in him. And in this case, only one doctor, one parasitologist, can replace all the specialists.
Classification of helminths
roundworms are quite common
Types of worms in humans:
- flat worms
- round worms
- Tectonic (posterior, schistosomal, parietal)
- Cestodes (broad band, tape, echinococcus, honeycomb)
- Round worms or nematodes:
Such a classification of helminths is presented in the medical literature. To successfully solve such a problem as helminthiasis, it is necessary to know an in-depth description of the structure and life cycle of parasites.
Another name for tremors is flukes. These parasites are flat, leaf-shaped or lanceolate with two suckers. One sucker is located in the mouth and the second, which serves as an attachment, to the peritoneum. All representatives of the bubbles enter the body through an intermediate host. These parasites are mainly hermaphrodites.
This sweatshirt is a worm up to 1. 3 cm long with two suckers. Opisthorchis is hermaphroditic, parasitic on the liver, gallbladder, pancreas in humans and some predators (foxes, dogs, cats). The eggs of the regression leave the body of the human or animal with feces. When they enter the tank, these eggs are swallowed by freshwater mollusks, in which the larvae hatch and grow. The process of growth and maturation of the larvae takes two months. The larvae then crawl out of the mollusk and penetrate under the skin to carp fish. After six weeks, the larvae become fully mature parasites. Opisthorchis enters the body of an animal or a human after eating infected fish. This worm can live in a living organism for up to 20 years. Symptoms of relapse:
- Loss of conscience
The damage caused to the body by epilepsy:
- Poisoning by parasite waste
- Liver tissue damage
- Gallbladder injury
- Violation of bile outflow
- Inflammation of the pancreas
- Secretory dysfunctions
- Reduced mobility of the stomach
- Thickening of the walls of some organs, appearance of tumors as a result.
The chronic course of the disease is characterized by:
- Gravity after eating
- Motion sickness
Backwater habitats in fish-rich rivers:
- Let's do it
- Neman Delta
Prevention of infection: To avoid infection with relapse, do not eat raw fish. The larvae die during the heat treatment of the products. Dried fish can only be eaten if it has been previously salted. Also, the larvae die when the fish is frozen for a long time.
These parasites are of different sexes, they look like a needle from 0. 4 to 2. 6 cm long. The females are longer than the males and bigger, they produce 3000 eggs a day. The method of reproduction, as in previous species of parasites, is done through freshwater mollusks. The larva enters the human body through the skin, mucous membranes while swimming in a freshwater tank. It can also enter the body of a person who accidentally swallowed water while swimming. One day after penetration, the larva turns into an adult and enters the peripheral veins, through which it is directed to the lungs and venous vessels. There, the schistosome reaches sexual maturity.
The schistosome lays eggs in the intestines, the mucous membranes, the bladder. The eggs are then excreted from the human body in the urine or feces and resume the developmental process. Schistosomes live in the human body for several decades, causing damage and infecting young people. The problems that arose during schistosomiasis, the human body is caused more not by adults, but by their eggs. Only half of the eggs are excreted from the body, the rest accumulate in the organs. The eggs of this parasite have spikes that damage the internal organs of a person, often ulcers appear in the infected. Patients with schistosomiasis have the following symptoms:
- Appetite disorder
- Enlarged liver
- Altered spleen
- Reduced intestinal peristalsis
- Stomach ache
- Weight loss
- Intestinal bleeding
- Pain when urinating
When the urogenital system is infected, patients experience:
- Menstrual disorders and miscarriages in women
- Impotence and incomplete ejaculation in men
When eggs enter the central nervous system:
- Acute cerebral schistosomiasis
- Chronic brain damage
- Fatal outcome
Infected children show growth retardation and growth, reduced school performance. Prevention of the disease includes avoiding swimming and avoiding walking barefoot in tropical waters.
Paragonim is a 1 cm long pulmonary lung with an oval body and red backs. This parasite multiplies in the lungs of animals and enters the human body by eating crayfish, freshwater crabs. The parasite infects the respiratory system. For patients with paragenesis, allergic reactions and decreased immunity are characteristic. Symptoms:
- Temperature rise
- Excretion of sputum from the lungs during coughing
- Shortness of breath
- In severe cases, blood and parasite eggs are present in the sputum.
- The wheezing is clearly heard in the patient's lungs.
- Prevention: exclude the use of raw crayfish and crabs.
The representatives of the cestodes are strips of different lengths. Some parasites reach gigantic sizes. On the head of these parasites there are suckers, hooks or suction slits. These adjustments are necessary to attach the parasites to the intestinal wall. Cestodes affect the entire human body, they are more dangerous for children who quickly develop anemia.
These parasites reach a length of 5 cm and are the causative agents of echinococcal disease. A representative of multiple chambers of this type of worm is the causative agent of a disease such as alveolar granulation. The disease is transmitted by cattle and domestic animals. When caring for these animals, the parasite's eggs fall from their fur into human hands. When they enter the human intestine, the parasites bite into the mucosa. As the parasite matures, 4 sections appear, the last of which is stuffed with eggs. These parts detach and scatter throughout the body, infecting it. The fourth part scatters the eggs all over the body.
An infected organ in a patient increases, for example, the liver. Perfusion may form. An enlarged organ can even penetrate the abdominal cavity. And this can lead to severe body rot and even death. Symptoms:
- Allergic reactions to parasite waste.
- Spinal cord
- thyroid gland
This parasite can cause the formation of tumors, including malignancies. The most unpleasant thing is that the treatment of this disease is possible only surgically. Prevention: personal hygiene in contact with animals.
These elongated, round or cylindrical worms often infest children's bodies. These roundworms include pinworms, roundworms, hookworms.
These are small white worms. The length of the female is 1 cm, of the male 0. 5 cm. These parasites have a pointed tail, which is why they were called pin worms. The habitat of worms is the human intestine. The front end of the parasite has a cord, with the help of which the worm pierces the intestines and the sharp end hangs in the lumen and destroys the walls. This disease is called enterobiasis. You can be infected by a person through dirty hands. There is a disease in preschool children attending kindergarten. One symptom of a worm infection is itching around the anus. Most often, itching is felt at night, when the female lays eggs while releasing a special substance. Symptoms:
- Stomach ache
- Lack of appetite
- washing hands
These worms are the largest. The length of the female is up to 0. 5 m. The female lays 200 thousand eggs a year, regardless of the male. The mechanism of infection is fecal-oral. Ascaris eggs enter the human body along with unwashed vegetables and fruits from dirty hands. The larva that has entered the intestine is selected from the shell and penetrates the walls of the intestine, while it migrates through the intestinal veins to the liver, through the hepatic veins to the heart, through the pulmonary arteries to the bronchi and then to the trachea and mouth. A number of larvae die in the open, the rest are swallowed backwards. Symptoms:
- Motion sickness
- Common acute respiratory infections
- washing hands
- Washing vegetables and fruits
- Personal hygiene
- Protect food from flies, cockroaches and other vendors.
In conclusion, we can say that the cause of the disease is not always bacteria and viruses that have entered the body. Parasites can cause great harm to human health. In case of vague symptoms, it is not necessary to exclude the penetration of the parasite into the body, the patient should visit a parasitologist.